Vous souhaitez creuser le sujet des graisses brûleuses de calories ? 
Nous avons regroupé ici le fruit de nos recherches sur ce sujet passionnant que sont les graisses brunes. 

Découverte et fonctionnement des graisses brunes

Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ. Luxuskonsumption, diet-induced thermogenesis and brown fat: the case in favour. Clin Sci (Lond) 1983;64 :19-23.

Jan Nedergaard, Tore Bengtsson, and Barbara Cannon. 2007. Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans.

Virtanen, K., et al., 2009. Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults.

Enerback, S., 2010. Human brown adipose tissue.

Devlin, M., 2014. The “Skinny” on brown fat, obesity, and bone.

Garvan Institute, 2014. Evidence that shivering and exercise may convert white fat to brown.

Maureen, D., 2014. The “Skinny” on brown fat, obesity, and bone.

Carpentier, A., et al., 2018. Brown Adipose Tissue Energy Metabolism in Humans.

Chechi, K., Lichtenbelt, WM., Richard, D., 2018. Brown and beige adipose tissues: phenotype and metabolic potential in mice and men.

Fletcher, L., et al., 2020. Sexual Dimorphisms in Adult Human Brown Adipose Tissue.


Dr Denis Richard, Directeur scientifique du Centre de recherche de l'IUCPQ (Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec). Recherche sur l'obésité et la graisse brune. 2011.

André Carpentier, Endocrinologue, Professeur-Chercheur à la FMSSS (Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé de Sherbrooke). La graisse brune, un tissu unique. 2017.

Graisses beiges

Bordicchia, M. et al., 2012. Cardiac natriuretic peptides act via p38 MAPK to induce the brown fat thermogenic program in mouse and human adipocytes.

Jun Wu, Pontus Boström, Lauren M. Sparks, Sven Enerbäck, Patrick Schrauwen, Bruce M. Spiegelman, 2012. Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human.

Activation des graisses brunes par le froid

Marken Lichtenbelt, W. et al., 2009. Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men.

Imbeault, P., et al, 2009. Cold exposure increases adiponectin levels in men.

Véronique Ouellet, Sébastien M. Labbé, Denis P. Blondin, Serge Phoenix, Brigitte Guérin, François Haman, Eric E. Turcotte, Denis Richard, and André C. Carpentier. 2012. Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans.

Lans, A., et al., 2013. Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis.

Villarroya, F. et Vidal-Puig, A., 2013. Beyond the sympathetic tone: the new brown fat activators.

Chen, K. et al., 2013. Brown fat activation mediates cold-induced thermogenesis in adult humans in response to a mild decrease in ambient temperature.

Blondin, D., et al., 2014. Increased Brown Adipose Tissue Oxidative Capacity in Cold-Acclimated Humans.

Devlin, M., 2014. The “Skinny” on brown fat, obesity, and bone.

Lee et al., 2014. Temperature-acclimated brown adipose tissue modulates insulin sensitivity in humans.

Blondin, D., et al., 2015. Selective Impairment of Glucose but Not Fatty Acid or Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Adipose Tissue of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

Anderson, J., et al, 2019. Estimating the cold-induced brown adipose tissue glucose uptake rate measured by 18F-FDG PET using infrared thermography and water-fat separated MRI.

Jong, J., et al., 2019. Human brown adipose tissue is phenocopied by classical brown adipose tissue in physiologically humanized mice.

Leitner, B., et al., 2019. Kinetics of human brown adipose tissue activation and deactivation.

Oreskovich, S., et al., 2019. MRI Reveals Human Brown Adipose Tissue Is Rapidly Activated in Response to Cold.

Mangel, L. et al., 2020. Gender Differences in the Response to Short-term Cold Exposure in Young Adults.

Saari, T., et al, 2020. Basal and cold-induced fatty acid uptake of human brown adipose tissue is impaired in obesity.

Straat, M. et al., 2022. Cold-Induced Thermogenesis Shows a Diurnal Variation That Unfolds Differently in Males and Females.

McKie, G., et al., 2022. Topical application of the pharmacological cold mimetic menthol stimulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through a TRPM8, UCP1, and norepinephrine dependent mechanism in mice housed at thermoneutrality.

Soo-min Choi et al., 2023. Anti-Obesity Effects of Menthae Herba Hydrosol on High-Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

Activation des graisses brunes par la nutrition

Yuriko Oi, Teruo Kawada, Keiko Kitamura, Fumiko Oyama, Mina Nitta, Yutaka Kominato, Syoji Nishimura, Kazuo Iwai, 1995. Garlic supplementation enhances norepinephrine secretion, growth of brown adipose tissue, and triglyceride catabolism in rats.

Couet, C., et al., 1997. Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults.

Halberg et al., 2005. Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men.

Berube-Parent, S., et al., 2007. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

Ono, K., et al., 2011. Intragastric administration of capsiate, a transient receptor potential channel agonist, triggers thermogenic sympathetic responses.

Yamashita, Y., et al., 2012. Prevention mechanisms of glucose intolerance and obesity by cacao liquor procyanidin extract in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice.

Brown, Mosley and Aldred, 2013. Intermittent fasting: a dietary intervention for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

Paoli A., Rubini, A., Volek, J., 2013. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

Ahn, J., et al., 2014. Allyl isothiocyanate ameliorates insulin resistance through the regulation of mitochondrial function.

Srivastava, S., et al, 2014. A ketogenic diet increases brown adipose tissue mitochondrial proteins and UCP1 levels in mice.

Du, S., et al., 2015. Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Yan, H., et al., 2015. Efficacy of Berberine in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Hui Q. Zhang, Shi Y. Chen, An S. Wang, An J. Yao, Jian F. Fu, Jin S. Zhao, Fen Chen, Zu Q. Zou, Xiao H. Zhang, Yu J. Shan and Yong P. Bao, 2016. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization.

Wei, G., et al., 2016. Rutin ameliorates obesity through brown fat activation.

Jameel Lone, Jae Heon Choi, Sang Woo Kim, Jong Won Yun, 2016. Curcumin induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 and primary white adipocytes.

Gotthardt et al., 2016. Intermittent fasting promotes fat loss with lean mass retention, increased hypothalamic norepinephrine content, and increased neuropeptide y gene expression in diet-induced obese male mice.

Douris, N., et al., 2017. Beta-adrenergic receptors are critical for weight loss but not for other metabolic adaptations to the consumption of a ketogenic diet in male mice.

Guolin, L., et al., 2017. Intermittent fasting promotes white adipose browning and decreases obesity by shaping the gut microbiota.

Lee, S., Parks, J., Kang, H., 2017. Quercetin, a functional compound of onion peel, remodels white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes.

Mele, L., et al., 2017. Dietary (Poly)phenols, Brown Adipose Tissue Activation, and Energy Expenditure: A Narrative Review.

Zhao, Y., et al., 2017. The Beneficial Effects of Quercetin, Curcumin, and Resveratrol in Obesity.

Desjardins, E., Steinberg, G., 2018. Emerging Role of AMPK in Brown and Beige Adipose Tissue (BAT): Implications for Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Type 2 Diabetes.

Jang, M., et al., 2018. Theobromine, a Methylxanthine in Cocoa Bean, Stimulates Thermogenesis by Inducing White Fat Browning and Activating Brown Adipocytes.

Song, Z., et al., 2018. Dietary Curcumin Intervention Targets Mouse White Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Brown Adipose Tissue UCP1 Expression.

Yoneshiro, T., Matsushita, M. and Saito, M., 2018. Translational aspects of brown fat activation by food-derived stimulants.

Aranaz, P., et al., 2019. Low doses of cocoa extract supplementation ameliorate diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats.

Bortolin, R., et al., 2019. Guarana supplementation attenuated obesity, insulin resistance, and adipokines dysregulation induced by a standardized human Western diet via brown adipose tissue activation.

Osuna-Prieto, F., et al., 2019. Activation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue by Capsinoids, Catechins, Ephedrine, and Other Dietary Components: A Systematic Review.

Quan, L., et al., 2019. Myristoleic acid produced by enterococci reduces obesity through brown adipose tissue activation.

Wu, L., et al., 2019. Berberine promotes the recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue in mice and humans.

Chuanhai Zhang, Xiaoyun He, Yao Sheng, Jia Xu, Cui Yang, Shujuan Zheng, Junyu Liu, Haoyu Li, Jianbing Ge, Minglan Yang, Baiqiang Zhai, Wentao Xu, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang, 2020. Allicin regulates energy homeostasis through brown adipose tissue.

Hui, S., et al., 2020. Resveratrol enhances brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in part by regulating bile acid metabolism via gut microbiota remodeling.

Kalipahana, N., et al., 2020. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Adipose Tissue: Inflammation and Browning.

L. Melguizo Rodríguez, R. Illescas-Montes, V. J Costela-Ruiz, O. García-Martínez, 2020. Stimulation of brown adipose tissue by polyphenols in extra virgin olive oil.

Yuan, W., et al., 2020. Effect of the ketogenic diet on glycemic control, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism in patients with T2DM: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Zhu, Y., et al., 2020. The polyphenol-rich extract from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) modulates gut microbiota and improves lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese rats.

Pei, Y., et al., 2021. Effect of quercetin on nonshivering thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Pei, Y., et al., 2021. Quercetin alleviates high-fat diet-induced inflammation in brown adipose tissue.

Tasic, N., et al., 2021. Black chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profle in patients with metabolic syndrome: a prospective controlled trial.

Verduci, E., et al., 2021. Brown Adipose Tissue: New Challenges for Prevention of Childhood Obesity. A Narrative Review.

Waldhart, A., et al, 2021. Excess dietary carbohydrate affects mitochondrial integrity as observed in brown adipose tissue.

Ya Pei,John S.Parks, Hye Won Kang, 2021. Quercetin alleviates high-fat diet-induced inflammation in brown adipose tissue.

Whittaker, J., Wu, K., 2021. Low-fat diets and testosterone in men: systematic review and metaanalysis of intervention studies.

Plucińska K., Zaman S., Cohen P., 2022. Fructose: Not sweet enough for brown fat?

Zheng Jiawei, Liu, Wujian, Zhu Jundong, 2023. Pterostilbene induces browning of white adipocytes via AMPK/PGC-1α pathway.

Aishani Sivasai Gargapati, Mahboubeh Varmazyad, David Gius, 2023. Fasting induces greater expression of mitochondrial proteins associated with fatty acid metabolism and non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue of knock-in ACSS1K635Q mice.

Activation des graisses brunes par l'exercice

Moro, C. et al., 2006. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates lipid mobilization during repeated bouts of endurance exercise.

A C Hackney, K P Hosick, A Myer, D A Rubin, C L Battaglini, 2012. Testosterone responses to intensive interval versus steady-state endurance exercise.

Lee, P., et al., 2014. Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans.

Yoshifumi Tsuchiya, Daisuke Ando, Kazushige Goto, Masataka Kiuchi, Mitsuya Yamakita, Katsuhiro Koyama, 2014. High-intensity exercise causes greater irisin response compared with low-intensity exercise under similar energy consumption.

Schwalm C., 2015. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation.

Carolina Archundia-Herrera, Maciste Macias-Cervantes, Bernardo Ruiz-Muñoz, Katya Vargas-Ortiz, Carlos Kornhauser, and Victoriano Perez-Vazquez, 2017. Muscle irisin response to aerobic vs HIIT in overweight female adolescents.

Mattar, L., Farran, N., Bakhour, D., 2017. Effect of 7-minute workout on weight and body composition.

P. Herbert, L D Hayes, N F Sculthorpe, F M Grace, 2017. HIIT produces increases in muscle power and free testosterone in male masters athletes.

Florie Maillard, Bruno Pereira, Nathalie Boisseau, 2018. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on total, abdominal and visceral fat mass: a meta-analysis.

Motta, V., 2019. Browning is activated in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of mice metabolically challenged with a high-fructose diet submitted to high-intensity interval training.

Khalafi, M., et al., 2020. The Impact of Moderate-Intensity Continuous or High-Intensity Interval Training on Adipogenesis and Browning of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Obese Male Rats.

Mohsen Jafari, Ismaeel Abbasi and Sahar Fathi Aralloo, 2020. The effect of eight weeks High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on ofirisin levels in obese young men.

Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-YuPan, Yu-TingTseng, Fu-Chen Chen, Yu-Chuan Chang, Tsai-Chiao Wang, 2021. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous exercise on BDNF and irisin levels and neurocognitive performance in late middle-aged and older adults.

Fu, P., et al., 2021. Aerobic exercise promotes the functions of brown adipose tissue in obese mice via a mechanism involving COX2 in the VEGF signaling pathway.

Daiana Araujo Santana-Oliveira et al., 2023. Exercise prevents obesity by reducing gut-derived inflammatory signals to brown adipocytes in mice.

Graisses brunes et hormones

Abelenda, M. et al., 1992. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in testosterone-treated rats.

Rodriguez, A. et al., 2002. Opposite actions of testosterone and progesterone on UCP1 mRNA expression in cultured brown adipocytes.

Yasuda, T., et al., 2003. Centrally administered ghrelin suppresses sympathetic nerve activity in brown adipose tissue of rats.

Tsubone, T., et al., 2005. Ghrelin regulates adiposity in white adipose tissue and UCP1 mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue in mice.

Yuki, T., et al., 2008. Oxytocin receptor-deficient mice developed late-onset obesity.

Imbeault, P., et al, 2009. Cold exposure increases adiponectin levels in men.

Mano-Otagiri, A., et al., 2010. Genetic suppression of ghrelin receptors activates brown adipocyte function and decreases fat storage in rats.

Law, J., et al., 2014. The influence of sex steroids on adipose tissue growth and function.

Traish, A., 2014. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence.

Amstrup, A., et al., 2015. Reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in response to 1 year of melatonin treatment in postmenopausal women: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Hewagalamulage, S., Lee, T., Henry, B., 2O16. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

Ramage, L., et al., 2016. Glucocorticoids Acutely Increase Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans, Revealing Species-Specific Differences in UCP-1 Regulation.

Robinson, L., et al., 2016. Brown adipose tissue activation as measured by infrared thermography by mild anticipatory psychological stress in lean healthy females.

Chondronikola, M., et al., 2017. Brown Adipose Tissue is Associated with Systemic Concentrations of Peptides Secreted from the Gastrointestinal System and Involved in Appetite Regulation.

Rossum, E., 2017. Obesity and Cortisol: New Perspectives on an Old Theme.

Scotney, H., et al., 2017. Glucocorticoids modulate human brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo.

Thuzar, M., et al., 2017. Glucocorticoids suppress brown adipose tissue function in humans: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Olescuck, I., et al, 2019. Melatonin and brown adipose tissue: novel insights to a complex interplay.

Halpern, B., et al, 2019. Melatonin Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Volume and Activity in Patients With Melatonin Deficiency: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Luijten, I., Cannon, B., Nedergaard, J., 2019. Glucocorticoids and Brown Adipose Tissue: Do glucocorticoids really inhibit thermogenesis?

Xu, Z., et al., 2019. Elucidating the Regulatory Role of Melatonin in Brown, White, and Beige Adipocytes.

Fischer, A., Cannon, B., Nedergaard, J., 2020. Leptin: Is It Thermogenic?

Yuan, J., et al., 2020. The effects of oxytocin to rectify metabolic dysfunction in obese mice are associated with increased thermogenesis.

Agil, A., et al, 2021. Melatonin Enhances the Mitochondrial Functionality of Brown Adipose Tissue in Obese—Diabetic Rats.

Delphino, F., Figueiredo, L., 2021. Melatonin supplementation and anthropometric indicators of obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Xu, L., Li, D., Li, H. et al, 2022. Suppression of obesity by melatonin through increasing energy expenditure and accelerating lipolysis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Velickovic K., et al., 2023. Leptin deficiency impairs adipogenesis and browning response in mouse mesenchymal progenitors.

Graisses brunes et diabète de type 2

Mc Millian-Price, J. et al., 2006. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Li, S. et al., 2009. Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Stanford, K. et al., 2013. Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

Chondronikola, M. et al., 2014. Brown adipose tissue improves whole body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans.

Graisses brunes et prévention santé

Jun Wu, Pontus Boström, Lauren M. Sparks, Sven Enerbäck, Patrick Schrauwen, Bruce M. Spiegelman, 2012. Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human.

Berbee et al., 2015. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development.

George-Emmanuel Maalouf and Diala El Khoury, 2019. Exercise-induced irisin, the fat browning myokine, as a potential anticancer agent.

Tobias Becher, Srikanth Palanisamy, Daniel J. Kramer, Mahmoud Eljalby, Sarah J. Marx, Andreas G. Wibmer, Scott D. Butler, Caroline S. Jiang, Roger Vaughan, Heiko Schöder, Allyn Mark & Paul Cohen, 2021. Brown adipose tissue is associated with cardiometabolic health.

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